Truman PRESS, St Albans, Late 19th Century

February, 2008

Currently under revision


In 2008 Linda Smith  contacted this site concerning Truman Press and this has resulted in a lot of research nto the publishing activities of Truman, his family, and other contacts. This page summarizes the research - for the original correspondence and notes see Original Listing


Children's ages
1871 census


Benjamin 15  
Walter 13  
William 11  
Frederick 10  
Mary Jane 7  
Truman 5  
Charles 1  

The Press family of Great Yarmouth

Truman Press, one of six boys and a girl, was born in 1865 in Yarmouth and the son of Benjamin and Mary Ann PressBenjamin with the help of his brothers aspired to be a Ship's Captain and ended up as part owner of the 'Skimmer of the seas.' Benjamin died in 1878. Truman's mother, Mary Ann died in 1898 leaving 13 houses in her Will.  At the time of the 1881 census Truman was an apprentice journalist.  In 1885 he married Blanche Laura Lambert in Islington, and the couple went to live in St. Albans.  Their son Truman Victor Press was born 24th Jan 1886 in St. Albans and a daughter Gertrude Blanche was born 14th Jan 1888 in St. Albans

Truman Press and the Hertfordshire Standard

When newspaper stamp duty was removed in 1855 the Hertfordshire Advertiser quickly appeared, and was without serious local opposition until 1877, when the Hertfordshire Standard Newspaper Company Ltd, Chequer Street, St Albans was set up to publish the Hertfordshire Standard (q.v), which was printed on the press previously used bt the short-lived St Albans Reporter, was launched to represent the Conservative views, as opposed to the Advertiser's Liberal stance. It was

the Hertfordshire Standard was owned  and published by the  to represent the Conservative views, as opposed to the Advertiser's Liberal stance.. In 1882 It was published on Wednesday and Saturday by the printer William Cartmel, at the Hertfordshire Standard Steam Printing Works in Victoria Street. The company secretary was Albert Clerk and manager Arthur Williams. In the 1881 census Arthur was described as a 22 year old newspaper agent living at the Standard Office, Chequer Street. [There is no relevant entry in the St Albans Almanack for 1883 in Chequer Street, and W. Cartmel is simply described as a printer in Victoria Street.]

Truman Press was described as the editor of the Hertfordshire Standard in February 1885 when he married Blanche Laura Lambert in St Peter's Church, Highgate Hill, London. (Yarmouth Independent, 14 February, 1885)

In October 1885 the "Verulam" Habitation of the Primrose League was formed, and Trueman Press was the honorary secretary, Herts Standard offices,

By 1886 the Hertfordshire Standard was owned, published and printed by William Cartmel from the Hertfordshire Standard Steam Printing Works in Victoria Street.

In 1886 Truman Press was editing the Hertfordshire Standard  and wrote a Pen Political Portrait column. This led to the book Hertfordshire Men of Mark which was published in 1887. It was written by Truman Press, editor of the Hertfordshire Standard, and printed by William Cartmel, Victoria Street. It was described as "Volume 1" but there is no evidence that any later volumes ever appeared. On of the people featured was Isaac Newton Edwards, who was the founding secretary of the Hertfordshire Standard Newspaper Company Ltd

In 1887 he stood for election on the St Albans School Board as an independent "working ,an's candidtae" (Herts Advertiser, 28 May 1887) and was elected chairman (Herts Advertiser, 5th June 1887). In 1888 he stood in the St Albans Municipal election, but was not elected. (Herts Advertiser, 3 November 1888).

In September 1888 he contributed an article on the Earl of Verulam to the Hertfordshire Constitutional Magazine, edited by Quincey Lane, and the following year contributed an article on "The Marquess of Salisbury's visit to Watford" to the Middlesex Constitutional Magazine, also edited by Quincy Lane.

In October 1890 the Eastern Daily Press reported that "In connection with enthronment of the Bishop of St. Alban’s last week the Herts Standard & St. Alban's Citizen came out with a special art edition containing twenty sketches, besides a full and complete report of the ceremony, The present proprietor of the paper is Mr. Truman Press, native of Great Yarmouth, who is assisted by his brother, Mr. C. A. Manning Press, who was formerly engaged in the office of the Lowestoft Weekly Journal".

In 1890 The Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen was owned and published by Truman Press (who was living at Gordon Villa, Worley Road, St Albans), from Victoria Street, and was still being printed by William Cartmel.   The 1891 census lists Truman Press as a 26 year old newspaper proprietor.

In December 1890 a paper called the Barnet Times was launched which was later known as the Finchley Telegraph & Barnet Times and finally Barnet Times & Finchley Telegraph. The paper apparently ceased to be published in 1906. In October  1891 the Watford Times was launched. After a year it became the Watford Times and Advertiser, and in 1893 became the Watford Times and County Advertiser - which closed in 1896.

In 1891 Truman Press was re-elected as churchwarden for Christchurch, St Albans. (Herts Advertiser. 11 April 1881). Later the same month he and Mr. F, W, Kinneir convened a private meeting of the Conservatives at the Town Hall. (Herts Advertiser, 18 April, 1891).

In 1892 Hertfordshire County Homes was published at Victoria Street St Albans,  described as the Offices of the "Hertfordshire Standard," the "Watford Times,", The "Barnet and Southgate Times," and the "Finchley Telegraph". The illustrations were by a local artist, F. G. Kitton, and while the author of the text is not stated it was probably Truman Press. The work was printed by William Cartmel. (Neither the Watford Times or the Barnet & Southgate Times were listed in 1890.)

In 1882 Truman Press wasw one of a number of people accepted as honorary members of the Oddfellows at St Albans.

In 1893 the Hertfordshire Illustrated Review was published in monthly parts at 1 shilling a part. It was, "conducted and edited by Fred. G. Kitton, Truman Press, and Arthur Smith." from Victoria Street, St Albans, and at least initially printed by Paternoster Steam Press, 11 Ivy Lane, London E.C. [Information from cover of the April 1893 issue.] At the end of the year a bound "Volume The First" was published which left out the covers and adverts of the monthly issues and credited the printing to the Paternoster Steam Press and to Gibbs & Bamforth, St Albans. This raises the question as to whether the printer was changed (to William Cartmel's main rival in St Albans) during the year. It continued quarterly in 1894 and then ceased publication. [A leaflet inviting advance subscriptions to the Hertfordshire Fortnightly may have have been a precursor to this publication.]

In December 1893 Mr & Mrs Press were among the many who attended "Manor House School at Home at the Town Hall", St Albans. He was also a member of the Public Library Committee. (Herts Advertiser, 23rd December, 1893)

In 1894 Truman Press authored Gloucestershire lives social and political which was published in London.

In 1894 Kelly's lists "Press  Truman, publisher & sole proprietor of 'The Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen' and publisher & part proprietor of 'The Herts Illustrated Review,' Victoria Street. See Advertisement". The description of St Albans in the directory, (which was republished in 1895)  says the Review was published on the 14th of March, June, September and December) It also lists "Cartmel William, general printer & stationer; over 50 years experience, "Herts Standard"  steam printing works, Victoria street" and, under Barnet, "Barnet Times (Truman Press, proprietor, pub) at 104 High Street, High Barnet". There is no Watford Times listed. However  in 1895 a rival paper, The St Albans Clock Tower , started publishing - although it only had a short run, ceasing publication in 1897.

Also in 1895 Truman Press authored Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire & Rutland: some of their leaders, social and political, published in London and "Printed Exclusively for subscribers." The following year he authored two more books: The County of Surrey: with illustrated biographies (published St Albans, 140 copies for private subscription) and The County of Kent and many of its family records (published St Albans,  published only for subscribers). The portrait comes from the St Albans Museum collection  and is labelled "Truman Press: Candidate for Municipal Honours, 1895."

In 1896 a letter appeared in The St Albans Clock Tower which comments on the way material for Truman & Manning Press's books was obtained. See Observations on Truman Press's Publications. In addition a book Hertfordshire: Some Ancestral Estates and Interesting Careers was published, by subscription, by the Watford Times with  illustrations by F. G. Kitton. It was apparently based on articles previously published in the Watford Times, probably by Truman Press.

In October 1896 Charles Albert Manning Press. of the "Social World" Company Ltd (Directors Truman Press, C. A. M. Press, Kennett Jeken Kingsford and Joseph Francis Rinder) accepted an estimate by Economic Printing Company Ltd Bonverie Street, London for composing, printing, stitching and delivering a weekly paper called the "Social World" at a rate of £9 10s for 10,000 copies of 24 pages. It is not clear when "Social World" was first printed, but in June 1897 the Economic Printing Company was no longed being paid and a court case ensued to try and recover the money from the directors. (Herts Advertiser, 3 May 1899).

In October 1897 the Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen held a meeting in the Public Hall, Hatfield, relating to it "Existence to be Continued". The press cutting, which unfortunately I have not yet seen, apparently lists members of its Executive Committee, and was reported in the paper - possibly 16th October. This would suggest there had been some problem which had threatened the continued publication of the paper. Later events (the 1900 court case) suggest that Truman Press was in severe financial difficulties and was brought out by Sir Blundell Maple for £500. Truman Press continued to publish as Truman Press & Co (but with limits on his financial powers. The Hertfordshire Standard Printing Co was established  with Mr. G. W, Simmons as Managing and Mr. W. Satchell as the secretary.

Truman Press  and Miss Campion after he left St Albans

In 1897 Truman Press is listed for the last time as living at Gordon Villa, Worley Road, St Albans, in the St Albans Almanack and from 1898 his wife is listed as living in Twickenham (as a married woman rather than a widow  in the 1901 census). The St Albans Almanack lists Cartmel W. at 6 Victoria Street and the Herts Standard, Press T. at 8 Victoria Street in both 1897 and 1898 but only Cartmel in the next available issue for 1900. [8 Victoria Street was the building before the Victorian public library (now a public house) in Victoria Street.]

In 1921 William McFee published a book 'Harbours of memory' by William McFee which includes events 23 years earlier. He wrote:

The 'Barnet Press,' a large old-fashioned paper with a dreary serial that nobody read, was owned and edited by Truman Press. He would go into your family affairs and draw upon authentic précis of your past glories, print it and bind it in blue leather with you crest in gold.  Truman held an office above a parade of shops, it was over a bakery restaurant, in fact he may have lived there. He goes on to explain there was an extremely handsome lady here and this beautiful lady turned out to be the actual editor of the paper. William McFee contributed half a column a week for 4 weeks and Truman gave him the princely sum of £1.

In 1899 Kelly's lists both the The Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen and Barnet Times as being published by Truman Press & Co while William Cartmel has dropped the "Herts Standard" from the description of his printing works in Victoria Street

Truman Press, of the Wood Green Mercury and the North London Mercury ("et hoc genus omne") of 27, Broadway Parade, Crouch End, was summoned by Mr. G. H. Frost, a Southgate journalist for £4, balance of account rendered. The judge asked if "Truman Press" was a real or assumed name and the solicitor replied "Having regard to these proceeding I think it is not so appropriate as your lordship supposes." (Herts Advertiser, 19 August 1899).

The British Library has copies of The North London Mercury & Crouch End Observer between 2nd September 1899 and 25 August 1905. They do not list the Highgate Times, the Hornsey & Harringay Mercury or the Muswell Hill Times. [It seems likely that they were all differently headed versions of the same paper and I have therefore included references to them below]

In 1899 another rival newspaper, the St Albans Gazette & County Advertiser started publishing but only survived until 1907.

While the Almanack fails to mention the Standard in 1900, the 1900 Kelly's Street Directory for St Albans clearly records the Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen, owned and published by the Herts Standard Printing Co Lim. on Friday, in Victoria Street. The Electoral Register for Twickenham show Truman Press at 46 Queen's Road, Twickenham between 1900 and 1903.

On 12 May 1900 a son, registered as Robin Press Campion (1900-1983), was born at Prittlewell, Essex.

In 1900 there was a complex case in which Messrs. Press, Simmons, and Co., newspaper proprietors and printers, of St. Albans, were the plaintiffs, and the defendant was Miss Carrie Amy Campion. The action was brought to recover £404 12s 8d for certain printing and other work done for the defendant.  It was extensively reported in the both the Barnet Times and the Herts Advertiser (7 & 14 April, 1900) I have just extracted some of the most relevant evidence below..

Mr. Jelf, Q.C., then proceeded to open the case, stating that the defendant was a lady journalist, who was originally a typewriter in the employment of Mr. Press, a gentleman whose name would figure a good deal in the case. Afterwards she shared an office with Mr. Press, and he (the learned counsel) did not think there would the slightest doubt that she and Mr, Press had business relations of a very close character together.  ... ...

Mr. Jelf went on to deal with the incorporation of the company. [Press, Simmons, and Co] which, he said. took place on January 25th. 1899. for the purpose of taking over the business formerly carried by Mr. Press, under the style of Truman Press and Co. He believed Mr. Press was the sole proprietor that company, although he was heavily financed. He had got into very deep water with respect to his finances, and he had been long pressed to get more capital by the people who had been asked in. Eventually this company was formed, and in an agreement, dated February 6th, 1899, Press, in the name of Truman Press and Co., sold the benefit his business from the 1st November preceding. Of the new company. Mr. Press was made managing director. He had not power, however, to bind the company to any very serious matter without their consent, although purported to do so, acting, as he (the learned counsel) alleged, in collusion with this lady. ... ...

One of the clients of the company was a Frank Fleet. Esq.” Nobody would suppose that under that title the lady journalist to whom he had referred was trading. There was no reason why she should not call herself "Frank Fleet,” but it was not a thing to which the mind of people conducting business would jump being the name for Indy to trade under. Thereupon, all the other people the company had not the smallest idea that “Frank Fleet, Esq.." was a lady. They did not know the details about the account with this client until after Mr. Press had been sued, and then at last he disclosed the fact that this individual was in reality Campion, the defendant in the present action; and further set up. what was now being set by her, that there was a contract between him and her. which put certain terms upon the printing arrangements between them. What that contract was was not discovered until afterwards. The document was sort of rough draft, scratched all over; not all the shape of formal agreement, with two signatures. It would for the defence to satisfy the jury that this was really a genuine contract, made at the time, and that it really represented not collation between them order to get money out of company, but a real transaction. So far his clients were concerned, they had not the least idea, of any such arrangement. ... ...

George Wagstaffe Simmons, now managing director of the plaintiff company, was then called as the first witness, and in examination by Mr. Beddall. said he had known Mr. Press for a great many years, but his first business relations with him were in 1895 or 1894. At that time it was contemplated to form a company to take over the newspaper business that Mr. Press was carrying on. In answer to his lordship, witness said he entered into an agreement with Mr. Press, by which he was regarded somewhat in the nature of a junior partner. He was assistant editor, and placed money in the business. .... he ... knew nothing about Mr. Frank Fleet” until after Mr. Press went out of the business.

... Did yon know until April 20th. 1899, that “Frank Fleet" was Carrie Amy Campion?—No. It was April. 1899. after Mr. Press went out of the business.—What position did Carrie Amy Campion occupy in Mr. Press’s office? She was Mr. Press’s secretary and typewriter, and worked at his private house. ... He had frequently asked Mr. Press who were the proprietors of the “Mercury" newspapers, and had been told that they were a rich local syndicate.

.... In answer to Mr. Jelf, witness said the papers said to belong to "Frank Fleet" were printed by the company up to August 19th of last year. On March 30th, 1899, he wrote “Frank Fleet, Esq." stating that the company had no contract for the production of his papers in their possession, and he was instructed that the company were entitled to summarily cease printing them. ... In reply to that letter, he received one signed by “Frank Fleet,” in the handwriting of Miss Campion, stating that there could be no dispute as to the printing contract, but would be happy meet witness for business chat. His Lordship: It is little audacious for a lady to suggest that she will meet a gentleman for a business chat. (To witness); What was the business chat?—Witness: We did not have it, lord—(laughter). ... witness said the address given at the head of the letter was 1, Broad Way-Parade, Crouoh End. That was Mr. Press’s office.

... Further cross-examined, witness said he knew the Mercuries wore being printed for somebody other than Mr. Press. Ho did not know that the name entered in the books was "Frank Fleet” until after the documents were handed over after the Chancery action. He was not told they were being printed for Miss Campion. did not find that out until Mr. Press went out the business. ...

The defendant to the action. Miss Carrie Amy Campion, was next called, and stated that she was first employed by Mr. Press about eight or nine years ago, as private secretary. She subsequently become a journalist in connection with Mr. Press's papers. That was after she had been with Mr. Press about six or seven months. She continued, until 1898, to be solely employed with Mr. Press in journalistic work. She had been ambitious to become newspaper proprietor, and she suggested that she should start some paper. In consequence of the intention to bring out a rival paper for Barnet from St. Albans, Mr. Press suggested that her paper should be the "Barnet Mercury.” with the idea of killing the rival paper, the "Barnet Herald.” Mr. Press explained to her that as this paper was coming out he saw there would be serious opposition to his own Barnet week-end paper. Therefore, he suggested that she should bring out a paper in opposition to the rival halfpenny paper, and with that view she gave Mr. Press a contract that he should become the printer of such newspaper. ... Under the agreement entered into by Press, she continued to edit and publish the “Mercuries” up to April. 1899. The publication of the “Barnet Mercury" ceased because of the action of the plaintiffs. She thought the paper was worth at least £250.

I am not going to try and sum up the rest of the evidence in this complex case but in the summing up the Judge noted that Miss Campion was registered as the proprietor of the Barnet Mercury at Stationers Hall. It also seems that Press was brought out by Sir Blundell Maple for £500. In addition the case ended with the Judge and jury differing! However the case went to the Referees Court to considered the counter-claim  and was reported in the Herts Advertiser (11 August, 1900) with Carie Amy Campion giving the following evidence:

Miss Carrie Amy Campion, the defendant, then gave evidence that she carried on toe newspapers in question until this year, when they were sold. She said the price of 4s. per column provided the contract was a price she could not get anywhere else. She was also to have the right to use the matter prepared for Mr. Press’s own papers and to use his staff of three reporters on three days week. Since the contract was broken she had to find her own reporters and to pay them £100. After the Company broke their contract she had to produce a smaller paper, and people complained. She had not been able to obtain any work like that specified in the contract. That was to say she could not find any printers to print and publish her papers and the same time pay, her £2 week for her services. She had offered her services in the newspapers, but received no offers. She considered she had lost the benefit of the contract for twenty years, as she was confident she would live for that period, and could fulfil the duties satisfactorily and efficiently. She was compelled to sell her paper because no other printers would give her credit. She had to find cash, and that crippled her. Other printers wanted cash every week, and ultimately she could not produce the paper. While she managed it, it was exceedingly profitable, and she had her cash-book and bank-book m court for inspection.

Miss Campion, in further evidence, gave figures showing that she made a profit in 1899 of £409 19a 6d., in addition £700 book debts. She said she had sold the paper to Mr. Press for £100, as one else would buy it so quickly. She wanted cash immediately to carry on the litigation. She thought the paper was well worth £2,000. and, in fact, Mr. Press had re-sold it for £1,500, in spite of the litigation. The circulation of the papers was steadily increasing, although the plaintiffs would not print all the number she required. In June, 1899, the Company themselves offered to buy the "Barnet Mercury,” but as the offer came to nothing she did not remember the price they offered.

Cross examined by Mr. Cannot, she said she  started the Friday paper in 1896, and it was that which she sold to Mr. Press. The agreement did not entirely refer to the Tuesday paper, but provided she might publish a Friday paper called the ‘‘North London Mercury." The Friday paper was an edition of her Tuesday papers, which were called the "Barnet Mercury," "The Wood Green Mercury,” and the "Crouch End Observer.” It was the same paper under different names. She ceased to sell the Tuesday papers about Christmas, 1899. At the time she started the papers she was employed by Mr. Press on journalistic services.

... Subsequent to the sale I have done a small amount of work for Messrs Mackinnon. Is that all? Do they own the 'Mercury"? Is that the firm that Mr Press sold it to? Yes. ... I received just under £4.

An advert in North London Mercury of 27 February, 1903, which is obviously covering a group of linked papers: Advertise in "The Muswell Hill Times", The Highgate Times" "The North London Mercury" In 1904 the North London Mercury & Crouch End Observer ran a competition where you sent entries to "The Prize Editor, 17 Grand Parade, Muswell Hill."

In 1901 searches of the census for Truman Press (including likely misspellings and possibly relevant  "T.P." entries in prisons, etc.) prove negative.  Carrie A Campion was a journalist living in rooms in Hornsey. In 1911 Truman PreeThe 1904 and 1907 Electoral Register shows Truman Press at 12 Grand-Parade, Fortis Green Road, Hornsey.

In 1902 the The Herts Standard & St Albans Citizen and the Barnet Times were both being published by The Herts Standard Printing Co. Limited. Neither are listed in the county directory for 1908 and the Standard is known to have ceased publishing in 1907. The 1907 Kelly's street Directory for St Albans lists five papers, the Barnet Times, the Finchley Telegraph, the Harpenden Mail, the Herts Standard and the Southgate Times being published by The Herts Standard Printing Co. Limited in Victoria Street. none are mentioned in its 1909 edition.

 In 1911 Truman Press (manager of a publishing company) and his son Robin were living in Ewhurst, Surrey.



1906   The following may also be relevant: In 1906 the Hornesy and Tottenham Press Limited published Masonry in London and Middlesex, Being a History of the Old St. James Lodge (1740-1813) and the Royal Union Lodge (1825 - Recent Times), and Comprising Much Information of Interest to Masons Generally by W. H. Reed. [I suspect this is another printed on subscription book.]


The above events suggests that the Hertfordshire Standard had problems when competing with the successful Hertfordshire Advertiser (established 1855), run by the Gibbs family which had newspaper publishing experience dating back to the Aylesbury News, first published in 1836. Within five years of first publication the company was being managed by a 22 year old Arthur Williams. Not long afterwards the printer appears to have taken it over and less than ten years after its creation its editor was the 20 year old Truman Press.

At some stage Truman also became the publisher and proprietor and started to publish a number of sycophantic books which were probably sold on the basis "I am publishing this book on ... and it would be a great shame if you were not included. There will only be a limited number published and these will be for subscribers only, so if you want a copy you can have five copies for only ... in advance." The preface to Hertfordshire Men of Mark apologises for the absence of a chapter on the Marquis of Salisbury - saying he deserved a whole book on his own - and one wonders if the young Truman Press was shown the door when he tried to sell the idea of the book to the Marquis.

In addition Truman started to launch other local newspapers, perhaps to use spare capacity at William Cartmel's stream printing works. The Watford Times appears to have never properly got off the ground (there were four competing Watford papers in the 1895 Kelly's) but the Barnet Times ran for some years. In 1893 the monthly Hertfordshire Illustrated Review was published but abandoned after one year, and it may be that Gibbs and Bamforth were called in to finish the first years publication at a lower cost than the London publishers to ensure that the people who had taken out a year's subscription in advance for a bound copy were not left short. If things were tight the appearance of the St Albans Clock Tower in 1895 could have been significant. What appears to have happened is that in 1896 or 1897 Truman Press was no longer in St Albans and by 1898 his wife had set up home without him in Twickenham.

In St Albans a company, Truman Press & Co was set up to run the Hertfordshire Standard and the Barnet Times - which it seems that William Cartmel may have stopped printing the papers - or was at least no longer proud enough of the fact to continue to name the works after the Standard. The company was either taken over or renamed the Herts Standard Printing Co. Ltd. but the papers had closed by 1907.


So what happened to Truman Press? Given the circumstances described above his income from the Hertfordshire Standard could well have been under significant pressure in 1895/6. The situation could have been made much worse if he was planning to publish further books such as the books on Surrey and Kent, and had collected advanced subscriptions which had been used as income - leaving no money for the actual publication of the books.

It is dangerous to come up with any firm theory about what happened without consulting the Hertfordshire Standard at the time, if only to get a date for the time he stopped being editor, and the time the ownership of the paper passed to the Truman Press Co. (Information on this company may be held in the National Archives - under BT 31.) However it is useful to look at the options, so that one can consider where it would be appropriate to look for evidence.

  1. Truman Press died in office. If this happened it would be reported at length in the Hertfordshire Standard. The apparent absence of a death registration and the fact that his wife described herself as married in 1901 counts against this theory.
  2. Truman Press became bankrupt or was convicted for fraud. If this happened it would be difficult for the Hertfordshire Standard not to publish something - especially as the scandal would have been considered extremely newsworthy by its main competitor, the Hertfordshire Advertiser. There would also be bankruptcy and/or criminal records. [People on prison, hospitals and other institutions sometime recorded people by their initials in census returns. A check of the 1901 census for "T.P." born in Norfolk circa 1866 proved negative.]
  3. The family (possibly including his wife's family) decided Truman was a liability and quietly moved him out of the way.  There is a possible example of this happening in the Gibbs family which published the Herts Advertiser - with George Washington Gibbs vanishing from the printing shop in St Albans and turning up as a customs officer in Liverpool, together with his family. As the evidence suggests that Truman Press separated from his family this seems less likely.
  4. Truman Press simply did a runner. Perhaps the most likely possibility. At about the same date one of my relatives "disappeared" on a family day trip to Southend and the message went out that he was "assumed  drowned" in the sea. Twenty years later he resumed contact with his family from Australia! This suggests it could be worth checking Canadian and Australian censuses around 1900 to see if he was there under his own name. If this happened both the publisher and probably the local Conservative party [do committee minutes still exist from this period?] would not have wanted the paper to fold, and would want to minimise the effect of the loss of their editor. If the Truman Press Co already existed the shareholders would also have an interest. (If the paper was actually owned by the Truman Press Co, and the paper was edited by Truman Press, the directory may well not have made the distinction.)
  5. His wife walked out on him, and Truman moved into lodgings and may have continued editing the Hertfordshire Standard beyond 1897. (This possibility should not be overlooked.)

To progress this further you will need to look at copies of the Hertfordshire Standard, and there are copies of a fair number of issues at HALS. The first issue will undoubtedly say why it has been published and should identify its initial editor, owners and backers - and this may provide useful background to the politics of what happened. (If you can name the backers I may be able to tell you more about them). Issues around 1886 could identify who was editing the paper before Truman Press, and when he first acted as editor. Who owned the paper is very relevant as perhaps Truman became editor because her brought the paper - and maybe Truman Press Ltd was created at this stage. Between 1892 and 1896 there may be adverts for publications relating to both books he wrote and others he may have planned to write but which never appeared in print. Issues around 1896 should help to date when he last edited the paper and may give a clue as to what happened. If he suddenly left a look at the Herts Advertiser for the period (microfilm in the St Albans library) may be very revealing if he left under a cloud! The transfer from Truman Press Ltd to the Herts Standard Printing Co Ltd could perhaps also be tracked down by looking at selected issues. The final closure might also be of interest in case Truman Press was still involved (perhaps as a director) from a distance.

Once some more precise information has been obtained from the paper it may be appropriate to look at other records - company registration records, bankruptcy and/or court records - but it is too early to plan this out.

He appears not to be listed in the 1911 census.


There is an additional problem in that in the 1930s Truman Press wrote at least three additional books - which sound as if they were produced in a similar way to the earlier books. These were The Book of Middlesex (published Twickenham, 1930, in a limited edition of 200 copies), Somerset County Houses and Villages (published Twickenham 1831 and printed by Walker for the author in an edition of 100 copies) and Truman's Book of Devon (published in Exeter in 1933 apparently as the Spring number of Truman's Country Quarterly - a publication I have been unable to trace.) It should be noted that the first two of these were published at Twickenham (where Truman's wife lived) - and while the author's name is given as Truman Press it is possible the author was his son Truman Victor Press.

One possible clue to who wrote the later books could be signatures. The one shown here comes from the cover of Hertfordshire Men of Mark may be art work rather than a real signature - but genuine signatures will be on the original master copy of the marriage certificates - which will be the copy in the church register. If one can then find an author signed copy of one of the 1930's books the identity of the author should be clear, and we will know if Truman Press senior has returned.

As it happens a signed copy of The Book of Middlesex is currently on sale online [link] and if you are not interested in buying it the bookseller might supply you with a copy of the signature if you explain why you want it (i.e. whether it is by father or son) and promise to let him have information on which was the author


In responding to the above Linda provided further background information on the Press family, including the following points relevant to the situation in Hertfordshire

Children's ages
1871 census

Benjamin 15
Walter 13
William 11
Frederick 10
Mary Jane 7
Truman 5
Charles 1
Truman Press, one of six boys and girl was born in 1865 in Yarmouth and the son of Benjamin and Mary Ann PressBenjamin with the help of his brothers aspired to be a Ship's Captain and ended up as part owner of the 'Skimmer of the seas.' Benjamin died in 1878. Truman's mother, Mary Ann died in 1898 leaving 13 houses in her Will.  At the time of the 1881 census Truman was an apprentice journalist.  In 1885 he married Blanche Laura Lambert in Islington, and the couple went to live in St. Albans.  Their son Truman Victor Press was born 24th Jan 1886 in St. Albans and a daughter Gertrude Blanche was born 14th Jan 1888 in St. Albans.  In 1888 Truman was Chairman of the Board of St. Albans School.  How did he acquire this position at the age of 23?

This helps put things into place. The family had money - or at least enough to launch Truman - and possibly the other sons, into business when they became 21 - and I would not be at all surprised if the family purchased the Hertfordshire Standard to launch Truman into a business career. The houses owned by his mother when she died are typical of such a family - with the rent from the property providing a secure "old age pension".

Some years ago an elderly relative told me that her mother had told her not to go near Truman Press because he was dodgy and up to no good.  I think this is looking more likely to be true.

I have checked the signature given in the Hertfordshire Men of Mark with the signature of Truman Press in the Book of Middlesex and they do look very similar.


In June 2009 Linda was finally able to report that she had tracked down Truman Press in his old age. She writes: I found a book 'The English Village from the Portsmouth Road' published in 1938 author T. Press. [It was a limited edition of 100 copies, privately published and containing a series of short essays on the villages of Hindhead, Bramshott, Standford, Selborne, Liss and Greatham.] Could this be our Truman? I decided to search the death indexes from 1938 and match the age of death roughly with his birth. Eventually I came to 1951 John T. Press died age 86 in Worthing. Who is this? I searched my Press data base and could find no birth in England or Wales for a John T. in 1865 0r 1866. I knew Truman's daughter Gertrude Blanche Press was found dead in her flat in Worthing in 1975. I sent for the death certificate and hey presto I had struck gold. John Truman Press had died 21st Nov 1951 in Southlands Hospital Shoreham by Sea aged 86. The informant was his daughter and they both had the same address at Littlehampton, his occupation was given as teacher and journalist. I checked the electoral register and they where both residing there from 1945, so after WW2. In 1939 they were not at this address.

Charles Albert Manning Press

In 1891 Truman Press was living at 24 Worley Road St. Albans with his brother Charles Albert Manning Press who was an author of various books [Dates are approximate]:

I found Charles on the 1901 census entered as C.A.M. Press - Clerk C.C. at 10 Stanley Gardens, Hampstead.

I decided to check the publications on COPAC to see if any were published in St Albans (none were) but I have added notes as appropriate. In fact very few library copies were located - suggesting that all these were very limited circulation publications - as were those by Truman Press. In about 1907 the editor (and possibly ownership) of the "social and political" series passed to Ernest Gaskell.

Further to my research I found on the court case of Ernest Gaskill, Samuel Carpmael etc. dated 1910 that in a phone book dated 1907 Samuel Carpmael was an advertising agent address given 139-140 Fleet Street and the same year 1907 Charles A.M. Press was appearing in advertising articles promoting "Wincarnis" which appears to be made by Coleman & Co. Ltd. Norwich. It reads
A. Manning Pres Esq., says "I find Wincarnis a most refreshing and rejuvenating tonic after severe mental strain. It has indeed infused new life and vitality into me when wearied and worn out by brain stress. I always keep a bottle in my study, and would never be without it."
With reference to the Court Case in 1910 I would like to mention the following
"The Looker-On" Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd. divided into 17,000 ordinary shares of £1 each etc. 
one of the Directors is none other than C.A. Manning Press Esq., (journalist) Managing Director, will join the Board after Allotment.
This Company has been formed for the purpose of establishing a publishing a thoroughly bright and smart week-end national paper to be the "The Looker-On."
It is intended that its most prominent features shall be its up to date sporting news and notes (football, cricket, racing, golf, and all kinds of out door sports in their season being fully and crisply dealt with by thoroughly competent writers)
It shall be published on Saturday mornings for Country readers and a second edition on Saturday evenings to contain all the results. 
It will also contain dramatic and musical events, In Politics it will be strictly neutral.
An experienced and talented staff of writers will be engaged and will be under close supervision, as indeed will be the whole enterprise, of the Managing Director, who has considerable practical experience in these matters.
The only contract entered into on behalf of the Company is between the founder of the scheme (Mr. C.A. Manning Press) on the one part, and Mr. A. Basil Reeve on behalf of the Company on the other part. 
None of the Capital has been underwritten, thus saving the payment of heavy commissions.  

Any ideas what happened?

Two letters dated 8/12/1909 and 17/12/1909 To The Hon. Lady Leighton-Warren trying to sell a book 'Cheshire, Historical, Biographical and Pictorial' are both signed Allan North, Ridge House Stockland Devon. 
Cheshire Leaders, Social and Political, was published 1909  by Ernest Gaskell, Queenhithe printing and Publishing Co. Ltd.

Also found - Bury Free Press 28th Jan 1893
Mr. C.A. Manning Press, of Leeds, who belongs to a very old East Anglian family whose home is Great Yarmouth just published a book entitled 'Yorkshire Leaders' Social and Political.  It is stated that Mr. Press is engaged upon a similar biographical work for the Counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. 

Kelly's Directory 1892 - William Henry Press - Manager Bury Free Press
this is Charles and Truman's brother. 

I have amassed large folders full of Court cases involving Truman Press, Carrie Campion and Charles A.M. Press. 
Have a look at the Herts Advertiser Sat. 6th May 1899
Mr. Truman Press and the 'Social World' action in the High Court
A case in which the Economic Printing Company Ltd., of Bouverie St. London sued Messs. Truman Press, Charles Albert Manning Press, Kennett Jeken Kingsford, Joseph Francis Rinder the directors of Social World Co. Ltd. now in liquidation for £453-18s-11d which they alleged was due to them by a contract contained in a letter dated 22nd Oct 1896 signed by Charles A.M. Press on behalf of the other defendants in the action, whereby they accepted the estimate of the plaintiffs, for composing, printing, stitching and delivering in a weekly paper called the Social World at the rate of £9-10s for 10,000 copies of 24 pages, the sum due for the labour and material to be payable on the tenth day of each month. 

Hi Linda

The Social World's directors were lucky to escape liability for the company's debt, albeit at the cost of bad publicity.

You may like to look at another newspaper article, which reveals the modus operandi of Ernest Gaskell (and perhaps C. A. M. Press before him): The Workington Star and Harrington Guardian, 23 Oct. 1908, page 2. A letter signed by Ernest Gaskell of Langley, Bucks., seeking material for Cumberland Leaders: Social and Political, is described in column 1 as follows:

The writer asked for a photo, and certain particulars, including name in full, where born, where educated, whom married, politics, public positions held, any pursuit in which he was particularly interested, facts of historical interest in connection with his home, whether interested in art collection, articles of vertu in his possession, and, lastly, "kindly state what number of copies may be sent you."

The next column recounts an earlier report from Truth (a few months before the Dundee Courier  covered the Forfarshire raid you mentioned) about Northumberland Leaders and Ernest Gaskell of The Graylands, Langley, with the implication that he could have been involved in a scam perpetrated by someone claiming to be his widow who was offering cut-price books from an address in Essex (probably Fairlight, Laindon). It's an intriguing story but I don't propose to give her any more of my time!



Eastern Evening News 27th March 1900
Law Case - Mr. C.A. Manning Press, who resides in Surrey bought an action in the Queen's Bench Div. against Messrs. Charles Webster Ltd, horse and carriage proprietors and Government contractors, of London for the payment of commission for introducing to defendants a purchaser and promoter of their business. The case was heard before a special jury. The Jury found for the Plaintiff £500 and costs.

On Sunday, 18 August 2019, 12:49:58 BST, Linda Smith <> wrote:
Isle of Wight Observer 8th Feb 1919
Poor Author's Plea
Mrs. Chiverton, a widow, of Seaview, was plaintiff in a judgment summons for £11 3s against Charles Manning Press, described as an author. - Defendant wrote that he was entirely without money at present, and living from bare hand to mouth on sufferance, in very humble apartments.  He could only offer £2 a month. - Judgment was suspended for 21 days, on payment of £2 a month 
Hi Linda

Thank you for sharing your interesting findings.

Are you sure that Truman Press or Carrie Amy Campion used Ernest Gaskell's name? I haven't seen his signature on the letters written at Langley in 1907 but he certainly seems more than likely to have been the owner of the Queenhithe Printing and Publishing Company, judging from the 1910 court proceedings and the post-war electoral registers for 13 Bread Street Hill.


Insolvency would explain why Ernest Gaskill left no will. I can only hope he had a more comfortable end than Charles Press, who may well have worked on the text of The Roll of Honour of the Empire's Heroes. His 1943 suicide note quoted the shorter title, British Roll of Honour, which is visible on the spine and front cover in various booksellers' and auctioneers' photos and is also catalogued at Durham University's Palace Green Library and the Library Hub with an assumed author named Stanley Southey. The date of that example (no later than 1915) is confirmed by an article in the Buckingham Advertiser and North Bucks Free Press (25 Dec. 1915, page 3, column 6, seen at Findmypast). Several editions with varying contents are held by the Imperial War Museum, and an eBay vendor currently has one commemorating an officer who died a week after the end of the war. Perhaps an early version was scanned by S&N for their CD, British Roll of Honour 1914-1916.

It appears that Charles Press or Ernest Gaskill may have taken over as editor or publisher from Stanley Southey, unless this was a pseudonym.


Ernest Gaskell (????-1928)

 The short piece in the Workington Star of 23 October 1908 firmly establishes the link between the Ernest Gaskell that lived at "The Greylands, Langley, Bucks" and the Cumberland and Northumberland Leaders books.
With the other evidence this seems to prove that Ernest Gaskell was the name of the printer who printed many of the Press books,

The spelling of Gaskell in the books is hard to explain but there can be little doubt that the same man was running the new Queenhithe Publishing Company after the demise of his old business in 1915. The London Gazette announced a creditor's petition for bankruptcy and a receiving order on 26 Jan. 1926 (page 659):

No. 313. GASKILL, Ernest, trading as the QUEENHITHE PUBLISHING CO., carrying on business at 13, Bread-street-hill, London, E.C. PRINTER.
Date of Filing Petition—Dec. 9, 1925.
No. of Matter—1,618 of 1925.
Date of Receiving Order—Jan. 20, 1926.
No. of Receiving Order—52.
Whether Debtor's or Creditor's Petition—Creditor's.
Act of Bankruptcy proved in Creditor's Petition—Section 1-1 (A.), Bankruptcy Act, 1914.

Adjudication followed shortly (5 Feb. 1926,
page 961):

GASKILL, Ernest, trading as the QUEENHITHE PUBLISHING CO., carrying on business at
13, Bread - street - hill, London, E.C. PRINTER
No. of Matter—1,618 of 1925.
Date of Order—Feb. 2, 1926.
Date of Filing Petition—Dec. 9, 1925.

An application for discharge was gazetted on 10 Jan. 1928 (
page 278):

GASKILL, Ernest, trading as the QUEENHITHE PUBLISHING CO., carrying on business at
13, Bread-street-hill, London, E.C. PRINTER.
No. of Matter—1,618 of 1925.
Day Fixed for Hearing—Feb. 3, 1928. 11 a.m.
Place—Bankruptcy Buildings, Carey-street, London, W.C. 2.

As I mentioned in my e-mail to Chris, the family's name is Gaskill in all the sources I listed other than those letters. Only in the 1871 census is Ernest recorded as a Gaskell, while his parents and their older children (on the previous page) are named Gaskill, which is clearly how he signed the marriage register in 1891 and the census form in 1911. Today I found his death notice in The Times (21 June 1928, page 1):

GASKILL.—On June 18, 1928, at "The Orchards," Ditton Park, Langley, ERNEST GASKILL, aged 59. No flowers, by request.


Durham leaders, social & political



The indefatigable Mr Ernest Gaskell (late Manning Press) has now undertaken raid in Forfarshire, and is soliciting contributions— in cash or in kind—for the "New High Class County Illustrated Work Forfarshire Leaders, Social arid Political." Interesting evidence of the high-classy character of this work is furnished by one of readers who carries in Forfarshire the humble though useful business of a mineral water manufacturer, and has received from Gaskell an invitation to supply particulars for his biography - much to his surprise, as he is a modest man. Evidently Gaskell considers his money as good as anybody else's, and hopes that, like others, will be ready to pay for a place in high class work which is patronised by the Lord-Lieutenant of the county. It seems extraordinary thing that Lords-Lieutenant are ready to lend their names to Gaskell for the purposes of his peculiar business. — Truth.

Dundee Courier, 28 January 1909


Cheshire leaders, social & political


Devonshire leaders, social & political


Lincolnshire leaders, social & political


Norfolk leaders : social & political


Northamptonshire leaders, social & political


Oxfordshire leaders : social & political


Derbyshire leaders : social & political


Hertfordshire leaders, social & political


Lancashire leaders : social & political


Somerset leaders, social & political


Worcestershire leaders, social & political.


Renfrewshire & Ayrshire leaders. Social & political


Surrey leaders : social & political.


Aberdeenshire & Perthshire leaders : social & political

1910 Leaders of Cornwall : social & political


Cumberland & Westmorland leaders : social & political


Westmorland & Cumberland leaders : social & political


Ayrshire & Renfrewshire leaders, social & political


Fife & Forfarshire leaders : social & political


Lanarkshire leaders : social & politica


Leaders of the Lothians - social & political

1912 Suffolk leaders, social & political


Ulster leaders, social & political.

  Hampshire leaders, social & political


Northumberland leaders : social & political


Perth & Aberdeenshire leaders : social & political


Shropshire leaders, social & political


South Wales Leaders, social & politica

Frederick Edmund Press

Also living in St. Albans was another of Truman's brothers Frederick Edmund Press. He married Lillie Ada Evans and their son Reginald Gurney Press was born in 1897 in St. Albans. Fred & Lillie's daughter, Rose was born in 1900 in Carshalton Surrey where they were running a tobacconist shop.  It would seem all 3 brothers could have left St. Albans at the same time. 

Their mother died in 1898. Could extra funds from her estate encouraged the move?

William Henry Press

Truman's brother was William Henry Press a Newspaper Editor and Manager, he married and had 7 children none of whom married. In 1891 he is living at 10 Albert Rd, Bury-St Edmunds.  They must have mo---------------ved to Watford as his daughter Margaret Mary Press was born 29th May 1893 in Watford.  In 1897 William's wife died  at 76 Ford End Road, Bedford and the Bedford local studies told me William was Editor of the Bedford Record Newspaper.  In 1901 all William's daughters are in Covents, two of his daughters at St. Vincent Convent, Percy Road, Watford. William was with his 2nd wife Elizabeth Burbidge at 31 Hockliffe Rd, Leighton Buzzard. She had been the proprietor of the Washington Hotel, Bath St. Leamington, Warwick. Her father had owned a large Farm in Wakerley, Northampton. So could William have been Editor of the Watford Times?  He seems to have been in Watford about the correct time.

I had another look at the 1894 Kelly's directory for Hertfordshire. Under the Newspaper section for Watford it lists the following papers:

However, in the general traders heading for Watford I found the following entry, which had been omitted from the above list:

In the Private Residents section for Watford I also found:

It therefore seems very likely that William Press was acting as editor of the Watford Times. Watford Central Library has a large collection of directories, including Watford street directories for the period, which may well give more information.


It will be interesting to find out when and why Truman Press, and other members of the Press family, left Hertfordshire, and to fill in details of the histories of the other short-lived newspapers in the "Press" empire.

June 2011

Linda Smith nee Press (press.gang1 @t has an important update. She writes: I have further researched Truman Press and Ernest Gaskell. I found Truman living in Devon in 1910 with a lady he met 12 years earlier. They lived as Mr. & Mrs. Allan North and had a 7 year old son. Mrs. North was found drowned at Sidmouth in 1910 aged 35 she was pregnant at the time. At the inquest it was stated she wrote 3 to 4 books a year. However the British Library has not found a single copy of any book in the name of North or her real name Carrie Amy Campion. Letters have been found to the Hon. Lady Leighton-Warren in Cheshire signed by Truman Press trying to sell her copies of his Cheshire Book. In 1909 Cheshire Leaders Social & Political was published author Ernest Gaskell, therefore this must be Mrs. North. I have since found 1910 Herefordshire Illustrated Who's Who by Allan North. Northamptonshire leaders S & P 1898 by C.A.M. Press & Ernest Gaskell.

Found Truman in 1911 in Ewhurst Surrey his name is transcribed wrong as Freeman Press.

I also found the publication of a book 'Harbours of memory' by William McFee in 1921 and he tells us of events 23 years earlier so about 1898 when Truman disappeared from St. Albans. He writes:

The 'Barnet Press' a large old-fashioned paper with a dreary serial that nobody read was owned and edited by Truman Press. He would go into your family affairs and draw upon authentic précis of your past glories, print it and bind it in blue leather with you crest in gold.  Truman held an office above a parade of shops, it was over a bakery restaurant, in fact he may have lived there. He goes on to explain there was an extremely handsome lady here and this beautiful lady turned out to be the actual editor of the paper. William McFee contributed half a column a week for 4 weeks and Truman gave him the princely sum of £1.

I have added the following books:

It would seem this page need a major retidying.

November 2014

The following information has been added - prior to a complete rewrite of the story. The majority of the entries relate to another group of papers that Truman Press was associated with between 1899 and about 1906.

188?   Prior to moving to St Albans Truman Press worked on the Gloucester Citizen

The British Library has copies of The North London Mercury & Crouch End Observer between 2nd September 1899 and 25 August 1905. They do not list the Highgate Times, the Hornsey & Harringay Mercury or the Muswell Hill Times. [It seems likely that they were all differently headed versions of the same paper and I have therefore included references to them below]

1900-1903   Electoral Register for Twickenham show Truman Press at 46 Queen's Road, Twickenham
1902   Kelly's Northern Districts of London Directory lists Muswell Hill Times (The) (Truman Press, proprietors), printing office, 2 The Pavement, Crouch End N. [I have not checked the directory for other newspaper titles]
1902   I found copies of the North London Mercury & Crouch End Observer on which link it to the Highgate Times.
1903   Advert in North London Mercury of 27 February, 1903, which is obviously covering a group of linked papers: Advertise in "The Muswell Hill Times", The Highgate Times" "The North London Mercury" Series ( [I have not searched the archive - paywall]
1904   The North London Mercury & Crouch End Observer publishing in 1904 with a competition where you sent entries to "The Prize Editor, 17 Grand Parade, Muswell Hill" [Sample page copy shows it covers Harringay]
1904 & 1907   Electoral Register shows Truman Press at 12 Grand-Parade, Fortis Green Road, Hornsey
1906   The following may also be relevant: In 1906 the Hornesy and Tottenham Press Limited published Masonry in London and Middlesex, Being a History of the Old St. James Lodge (1740-1813) and the Royal Union Lodge (1825 - Recent Times), and Comprising Much Information of Interest to Masons Generally by W. H. Reed. [I suspect this is another printed on subscription book.]
1907   Electoral Register shows Truman Press at 1 Dean's Cottage, Edgware

"In 1908 the Hornsey and Tottenham Press, with offices in Seven Sister Road and in the Grand Parade, Muswell Hill, owned the Highgate Times, the Muswell Hill Times and the Hornsey and Harringay Mercury" (Victoria County History of Muswell Hill) [This text may have been written several years before the publication date.]

1909   The London Gazette of  November 5, 1909 listed Hornsey and Tottenham Press as one of the joint stock companies was to be struck off the register .
1911   Census records Truman Press as a manager, wit 7 year old son Robin Press, (born Essex, registered Robin Campion)  living at Oxmead, Ewhurst,Surrey
1911   Charles Albert Manning Press, Author & Publisher, brother of missing head of household), at 54 Stromness Road, Southchurch, Southend on Sea, Prittlewell, Essex
1911   William Henry Press, Newspaper Editor, living at 53 Rothesay Road, Luton, Beds
1911   Blanche Laura Press (48 Married) Apartment House Keeper  & Gertrude Blanche Press, daughter. living at 19 Queens Road, Twickenham, Mdds.
1938    Electoral Register shows Truman & Gertrude Press at Tower Garage, London Road, Shottermill, Farnham, Surrey
1939   Charles A M Press, Author, born 15 April, 1869 at Forest House & St Marys Hospital, Newport B, Isle of Wight
1839   William H Press, Journalist retired, born 25 Jan 1860, living at 29 Roslyn Road, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, with Gertrude Press, unpaid domestic duties, born 6 April 1886
1939   Gertrude B Press living at Hill View, Artington , Guildford R.D., Surrey, England

If you can add to the information given above tell me.


  1. June 2008 - Additional information relating to 1896

  2. August 2008 - Additional information relating to 1893 and 1897

  3. January 2009 - Additional information relating to 1896 and 1911 census

  4. February 2009 - Note of press reports of activities in 1889 and 1893 and portrait from the St Albans Museum collection in 1895.

  5. June 2009 - Information on Truman Press's death

  6. January 2010 - Information about the Herts Illustrated Review's  continued publishing in 1894.

  7. July 2010 - Initial information about Ernest Gaskell  - C. A. M. Press

  8. June 2011 - useful update plus new contact email and address

  9. November 2014 - Information relating to Muswell Hill Times, etc.